Its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers , whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative , consisting of the bicameral Congress Article I ; the executive , consisting of the president and subordinate officers Article II ; and the judicial , consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts Article III. Article IV , Article V and Article VI embody concepts of federalism , describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments , the states in relationship to the federal government, and the shared process of constitutional amendment. Article VII establishes the procedure subsequently used by the 13 States to ratify it. It is regarded as the oldest written and codified national constitution in force. Since the Constitution came into force in , it has been amended 27 times, including one amendment that repealed a previous one,  in order to meet the needs of a nation that has profoundly changed since the 18th century. Others address issues related to federal authority or modify government processes and procedures.
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The first—and most well-known—amendment of the Constitution reads:. James Madison was instrumental in drafting and advocating for both the ratification of the Constitution and the U. Bill of Rights. He is one of the Founding Fathers and is also nicknamed "the father of the Constitution.
General Education. Controversial topics are a good choice for an essay or debate because they immediately draw in the reader or listener. After all, when something is controversial, everybody wants to have their say over it.