Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage. Sanitation systems aim to protect human health by providing a clean environment that will stop the transmission of disease , especially through the fecal—oral route. A range of sanitation technologies and approaches exists. Some examples are community-led total sanitation , container-based sanitation , ecological sanitation , emergency sanitation , environmental sanitation, onsite sanitation and sustainable sanitation. A sanitation system includes the capture, storage, transport, treatment and disposal or reuse of human excreta and wastewater. This is referred to as the "sanitation value chain" or "sanitation economy".
Water and sanitation hygiene in South Sudan: What needs to be done to bridge the gap?
Literature Review Of Drinking Water And Sanitation | Bartleby
Water supply and sanitation in China is undergoing a massive transition while facing numerous challenges such as rapid urbanization, increasing economic inequality , and the supply of water to rural areas. Water scarcity and pollution also impact access to water. Progress has been made in the past decades, with increased access to services, increased municipal wastewater treatment , the creation of water and wastewater utilities that are legally and financially separated from local governments, and increasing cost recovery as part of the transformation of the Chinese economy to a more market-oriented system. The government quadrupled investments in the sector during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan — Nevertheless, much remains to be achieved. Progress in rural areas appears to lag behind what has been achieved in urban areas. Access to water supply and sanitation has increased significantly in China over the past two decades in parallel with economic growth.
Water, sanitation and hygiene and indigenous peoples: A review of the literature
The essay is published in honour of World Water Day, which has been held every year on March 22 since The goal of this day is to celebrate water and raise awareness of the 2. COVID has exposed deep, structural inequalities in the world today along the lines of class, gender and race — between well-resourced and precarious workers, women and men, racialized and non-racialized people. The lenses of gender justice and environmental racism help us understand how the inter-related histories of colonialism and capitalism have created the unequal world that we live in, entrenching inequalities in the built environment as clearly evidenced by access to water and sanitation.
Since , impressive advancements have been made on many health fronts. However, to meet the Sustainable Development Goals health targets by , progress must be accelerated, in particular in regions with the highest burden of disease. Many more people today are living healthier lives than in the past decade. Nevertheless, people are still suffering needlessly from preventable diseases, and too many are dying prematurely.